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Building permit systems in Turkey

24/10/2022 Tax & Legal 65 Building permit systems in Turkey

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To begin any construction activities in Turkey, there are dozens of regulations and standards that must be followed in the building process in general, including the appropriateness of the land for construction and housing, in addition to the required permissions received from the relevant authorities. Furthermore, there are numerous building systems that are utilized in building homes and residential complexes in this country, such as steel-frame systems, reinforced concrete, stone-brick building systems, and wooden buildings, and these systems differ in their advantages and construction costs.

In today's article we will look at two types of building systems in Turkey, as well as whether it is preferable to build an apartment in Turkey versus purchasing one, indicating the advantages of each.

Reinforced concrete system

Turkey's most popular construction style is the reinforced concrete building system, and reinforced concrete—a combination of cement, water, and aggregates, including sand, gravel, and rocks—is the primary material used in construction. 

It is referred to as reinforced because iron bars are cast into it using unique molds specified by supervisor engineers to create a body made of this concrete with iron that is more durable and capable of supporting heavy loads such as bridges, roofs, high structures, etc...

Advantages of reinforced concrete

  • It is inexpensive, and its manufacturing expenses are deemed lower when compared to other construction materials, in addition to the quantity of raw resources utilized in its fabrication.
  • The simplicity of molding it into any shape and the ability to use it with various structures and molds.
  • Reinforced concrete can endure high temperatures and resist flames and explosions to a great extent.
  • Concrete constructions are moderately earthquake and tremor resistant. 
  • Reinforced concrete is long-lasting, resistant to rain and snow, and may endure up to 100 years if correctly made and constructed.

Disadvantages of reinforced concrete

  • One of reinforced concrete's key disadvantages, along with its poor resilience and shrinkage cracks, is its heavy weight.

Steel structure system

Steel structures are a combination of iron and a tiny fraction of carbon, as well as additional elements such as silicon, phosphorus, and sulfur in various concentrations.

Steel structures are distinguished by their light weight, strength, and stiffness, as well as their ease of production and transport. Furthermore, unlike reinforced concrete structures, steel structures do not need to be cast. 

Steel structures' flaws include corrosion susceptibility and the requirement for maintenance, in addition to their high cost. Steel constructions, too, need people with the right skills to be installed.

Construction costs in Turkey

The cost per square meter in Turkey varies depending on the kind of construction, whether it is residential or commercial, in addition to many variables that affect the cost, such as buying the land on which construction will be built, obtaining the appropriate permissions to start the construction practices, and designing the building plan.

As a result, it is challenging to come up with a precise estimation of the costs. In addition to the building materials and supplies, as well as the construction costs imposed by the real estate developer or contractor, there are other elements that influence construction costs, such as:

  • The cost of a property is directly correlated with its size and area; the greater the property's area, naturally, the higher the demands and requirements. For instance, building a two-room house will be less expensive than building a six-room house, and so on.
  • Real estate layout also influences the costs; the costs are affected by the form and architecture of the real estate. For example, the larger the number of entrances, windows, and minute features, the higher the real estate construction costs become. Increased requirements necessitate more time to accomplish, which also is reflected in the cost. 
  • Construction costs vary depending on the constructor or real estate developer, and hence range from fair to quite exorbitant.

Building permits in Turkey: what are they and where can they be obtained?

Building permits are the formal documents that authorize the construction process and are granted by the municipality in which the land lies.

Before getting a building permit, it must be determined if the land is appropriate for construction and that the legally mandated requirements are met.

The following papers must be provided in order to get a building permit:

  1. Form for requesting a building permit.
  2. The land's title deed.
  3. The construction eligibility document, which is determined by the municipality in which the structure is located.
  4. The position document, which displays the sector boundaries and can be received from the Directorate of Land Survey.
  5. The architectural plan certified by the Chamber of Architects.
  6. Chamber of Architects registry document.
  7. The construction supervisor contract.
  8. The reinforced concrete plan approved by the Chamber of Architects.
  9. Chamber of Structural Engineers' registry document.
  10. The electrical wiring diagram accepted by the Chamber of Architects.
  11. Mechanical Engineers Chamber registry document.
  12. Soil examination report.
  13. Appointing someone to be in charge of carrying out the plan and its supporting documents.
  14. Documents pertaining to the construction agency where construction is being carried out by an authorized building contractor.
  15. Documents pertaining to the construction control company and the construction control agreement.
  16. Building information form.
  17. A bank receipt indicating the deposit of 20% of fees into the account of the building control company.

It should be emphasized that if building does not begin within two years or ends within five years, the license is deemed invalid, and in this case, construction is not authorized anymore; a new license must be acquired.

Building a property or purchasing one in Turkey—which is better?

Who among us has not dreamt about building his or her ideal house? It is fortunate that some individuals are determined to make their dreams come true by building rather than purchasing their homes. The great environment in Turkey, which makes the dream a reality in addition to the many amenities for foreigners to live in, settle down, and even gain Turkish citizenship, may be one of the factors that led such individuals to construct their dream homes in this beautiful country.

Assuming you already have a plan in mind, the following are the procedures you must follow to ensure that no hurdles stand between you and receiving the key to your house after construction is finished:

Construction procedures for homes in Turkey

  1. To start, you must purchase land appropriate for the kind of property you want. If you wish to start building on your land, you must first have a license before you begin. 
  2. Employ an architect to develop the architectural plans for the property you wish to construct. 
  3. In order to secure a construction permit, submit the proposed architectural plans to the municipality.
  4. Begin construction and finish it before the license's expiration date.
  5. After the building process is finished, seek a housing permit by submitting an application to the municipality. The municipality's staff will then examine the property to make sure it adheres to the engineering design or plans that was filed when the building permission for the property was obtained.

Advantages of building a residential property in Turkey

  • Owning your own piece of property enables you to construct your ideal house according to your needs and the needs of your family, thus achieving your own preferences.
  • From the outside shape to the inside layout, you can construct your home's design the way you want. 
  • This enables you to make independent decisions on the best connections, building materials, and necessary supplies.
  • This also offers you the ability to live independently and privately.

Disadvantages of building a residential property in Turkey

  • The time and effort wasted throughout the search and purchase processes, as well as during the building process. 
  • To purchase a piece of land and then build on it takes a long time and a lot of money, both of which are difficult to predict.
  • Dealing with issues brought on by contractors and workers; the necessity for continuous follow-up and supervision; and handling small to large issues is extremely tiring.

Advantages of buying an apartment in Turkey " ready to move Apartment"

Sales of ready-made apartments in Turkey, especially for foreigners, are constantly increasing, indicating that many individuals have made a final decision to live in Turkey. And purchasing flats for sale in Istanbul or purchasing a ready-made apartment in Turkey is a courageous and rewarding investment decision.

Here are some benefits of purchasing a pre-built residence in Turkey:

  • The majority of ready apartments in Turkey are housed in opulent residential complexes, which contributes to the sensation of luxury.
  • You may save a ton of time and work by purchasing flats for sale in Turkey.
  • The option of purchasing your ideal apartment and paying it off in installments.
  • Whether you choose to get Turkish citizenship or use real estate as your primary residence, purchasing an apartment in Turkey is a sure way to ensure your security and ability to remain and live there.

Buying an apartment in Turkey: steps to follow

In Turkey, purchasing an apartment is a simple process with a few non-complex steps. If your primary purpose is to get Turkish citizenship, the time span between purchase and citizenship cannot exceed 90 days.

Yet, making a decision to buy a specific apartment may be the most difficult, and perhaps it may be that you need to sit for hours in front of Google searching for apartments for sale in Turkey with the specifications you want, so you would find a lot of options: Apartments for sale in Istanbul; apartments for sale in Trabzon; Bursa; Antalya; etc. With the same specifications, you will get more and more confused, not knowing which is better for you.

In order to successfully buy your right apartment in Turkey, we advise you to first define your objective of buying, or the main reason, and then determine the budget.

However, the following are the procedures you must follow in order to properly purchase an apartment in Turkey:

  • Choose the city

Yes, we are aware that it is difficult to choose a city because every Turkish city vies with one another for attention, advantages, and the presence of service institutions, but eventually, you need to decide what city you want. Do you want to live in the Turkish countryside, where you can experience the peace, beauty, and enchanting colorful views that nature has to offer; or do you love the ancient cities, where the streets are a living testament to history; or is your goal to invest, make money, and simultaneously take in Turkey's natural beauty? Making a purchase choice in a certain city allows you to live and settle in Turkey as soon as possible, and eliminates many difficulties.

  • Choose a trusted real estate agent

You must have heard of the real estate fraud instances that many investors who wish to purchase apartments for sale in Turkey are subjected to. To prevent falling into this trap, you should choose a dependable real estate firm, and therefore, you may pick a real estate agent or a reputable real estate agency. Inquire about the company's track record and years of expertise in the real estate industry. Check out the company's website and try to get in touch with some of the clients it has served in the past.

  • Specifications and budget

The major component in setting the budget is defining the objective of the purchase, as we indicated in the previous lines. If obtaining Turkish citizenship or real estate residency is your goal, this signifies stability and a good quality of life, which are reflected in the specifications you want for your home. So, be specific about your needs and let your real estate agent find the best deal for you. After that, check the costs of similar homes in the neighborhood to make sure your purchase will be secure and satisfying.

  • The purchase process and official documents

An amount or deposit is paid to reserve a property once a purchase of a certain property has been made and the price has been agreed upon. To formally register ownership of the property, the following procedures must be followed and certain paperwork must be completed before making the purchase:

  • A Turkish bank account must be opened in order to facilitate the transfer of funds, and the transfer and receipt must be presented with the contract.
  • An appraisal report for the property you want to purchase must be obtained.
  • A tax identification number must be extracted for the purchase process from the tax office.
  • The agreement or contract must be signed by both the buyer and seller in the presence of the real estate agent to make sure everything is in order.
  • The title deed for the property is annexed to the main contract and is in the name of the property owner who signed the deal or his authorized agent.
  • The contract also includes copies of the building permit, two certified personal pictures of the buyer, the title deed of the primary property owner, and the buyer's identity card.
  • Because foreigners are not permitted to own property in particular security regions, obtaining security approval is essential.
  • As soon as the security approval is received, proceed to the real estate department to register the property.
  • Obtain the title deed.

If the property is still being built, the buyer will be given a "Kat irtifakı" temporary title deed, an incomplete tapu, with the understanding that it will be replaced by a real estate title deed (full tapu) as soon as the building is finished and the apartment is turned over.

The acquisition of the title deed serves as the fundamental assurance document for real estate ownership and purchases in Turkey. If the whole sum is paid, it can be obtained immediately; otherwise, if the property is being paid for in instalments, it can be received upon the final payment of the remaining balance.

And now, dear reader, we hope that we have given you the information you need about Turkey's building permit systems, as well as the benefits and drawbacks of constructing and purchasing residential real estate there, to help you make your right decision.

 

By: damasturk

Keywords:

Turkey real estate

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